EU-FRESHBAKE: Bafe-off technology for bread production

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Project acronym: EU-FRESHBAKE
Duration: Oct 2006 – Nov 2009
Funded by: DG Research (FP6)

Project name: EU-FRESHBAKE

Sub title regarding the application described : Freshly baked breads with improvement of nutritional quality and low energy demanding for the benefit of the consumer and of the environment


1. Context and problematic

EU-FRESHBAKE concerns the bake off technology (BOT) for bread production. In the case of BOT, the bread making process is interrupted by a storage phase of the bread in a semi finished state (frozen dough, part baked bread …) and is finally transformed in a baking station. The problems to solve were -(i) can we draw benefit of refrigeration to enhance the quality of bread

-(ii) can we draw benefit of refrigeration to improve the nutrition quality of bread

-(iii) can we reduce the energy demand to produce these products,

-(iv) can we develop new recipe and process to make the bread

-(v) can we invent new equipment adapted to the process with low energy

2. Results and Applications

EU-FRESHBAKE had 5 Key objectives:

- To take benefit of refrigeration to improve the quality:

Part baked frozen process permits to significantly reduce the Glycaemic Index.

Partially baked frozen bread had a lower GI than directly baked bread. This has been attributed to a better preservation of the integrity of the starch granules.

Adding of sourdough to partially baked and frozen bread resulted in a very significant reduction of the GI The significant reduction in glycemic indices in comparison to control bread (conventionally baked) were seen, when the appropriate processes (partially baked and frozen- PBF) together with the particular additives (ingredients) were used. The additives were different depending on flour used for baking. Namely, fibers and sourdough powder were used for white flour rolls, while fresh sourdough and whey proteins for whole meal flour rolls baking. The obtained glycemic indices were low (below 55 %) for all above mentioned rolls.

Freezing of wholemeal dough allows an enhanced impact of phytase enzyme, and consequently an unexpected better availability of minerals in bread.

Dough ripening at low temperature using Amyloglusidase : improved quality and volume

- Innovative process / Energy saving :(ENITIAA, TTZ, CEMAGREF, MIWE)

Amyloglucosidase : up to 15% energy saving during baking Enzymes has been used to accelerate crust formation (faster crust browning) and to reduce the baking time. An energy saving of 30% has been demonstrated.

Mist Fermentation – Energy saving during baking (energy saving 17%) Ultrasonic smokescreen generator during fermentation allows a 17% energy saving

Prefermented frozen : one freezing + one baking Concept of prefermented – frozen has been investigated. The pre fermentation before freezing should result in porosity lower than 0.5 to prevent dough collapse. Big internal cavities will develop during baking in the case of excessive fermentation.

Vacuum baking : expected up to 50% energy saving vs conventional oven Low pressure baking concept has been validated. First tests showed that an energy reduction by 50% can be expected meanwhile the moisture lost was reduced by at least 30% and the bread volume was increased by 20% vs reference.

Control of final temperature during freezing process to save energy Controlling the final freezing temperature of the product can result in energy saving between 30 and more than 50 % depending on the conditions

- Innovative formulations / Nutrition quality:( IATA, PBF, KU, Schaer, Bezgluten, Biofournil …)

Gluten bread: added fibres combined to partial baking induces higher reduction of GI, with the subsequent nutritional impact

Innovative ferments adapted to bake off technology has been tested and selected according to both nutritional and quality effect on the fresh product.

Fibers in bake off technology. Structurally different fibres have been tested with special emphasis on the interaction with the breadmaking process. Fibres tested gave some stability to the product quality when BOT technology including frozen storage was used. Breads that can be labelled as source of fibres (fibre content ≥ 3) or high in fibres (fibre content ≥ 6) are obtained. Adding of inuline resulted in a faster crust colouration.

Gluten free formulation (enriched calcium + fibres) has been designed with hypoallergenic characteristics

Innovative Organic bread formulation has been designed with durum wheat flour A Soft crumb has been obtained. The mix of durum wheat and soft wheat is traditional in east of Europe and can provide interesting structure combined with different nutritional profiles.

Specific enzymes have been used and adapted to processing condition to improve the nutrition properties and to reduce the energy during baking

Gluten free breads enriched with amaranth flour resulted in higher calcium and magnesium and in an increase of the body mass index in rats

Gluten free breads enriched with flaxseed flour resulted in higher calcium and magnesium and in an increase of the body mass index and decrease in total cholesterol and LDL fraction (« bad cholesterol ») in rats

- Equipments adapted to the innovative process Patent filled on Infra red Oven has been filled (35 to 40% energy saving vs reference) : A low energy baking oven has been designed and a prototype has been constructed. It allows up to 40% energy reduction vs. reference and a preheating 50 to 70% faster.

Control of speed of compressor of a freezer to save energy (8%)

- Tools to extend the findings to future applications Labelling of part baked bread; can we envisage a « reduced GI » nutrition claim ?

Guide of good practice for the industry; focus on the bake off technology

3. Novelties, benefits and added value

Thanks to the research activities carried out in EU-FRESHBAKE, progresses have been done regarding the partial baking process. In particular its impact on the structure of the product and on the nutritional aspects (glycaemic index) has been evaluated.

Progresses have been also obtained regarding the technology of frozen dough and of prefermented frozen products.

Equipment – low enegy baking oven : a prototype has been constructed and is available for tests. It is a deck oven (stone oven) with a 1m² surface. This oven (electric) allow a reduction of the baking energy by 30 to 40%. A patent has been filled. Industrial collaboration is fore seen. More information can be obtained by consulting the scientific articles and the final report of the project (see internet web site).

4. Successful applications, success stories

- Equipment – low enegy baking oven : a prototype has been constructed and is available for tests. It is a deck oven (stone oven) with a 1m² surface.


For further reading the following scientific articles are suggested

1. Ben Aissa, M. F., J.-Y. Monteau, et al. (2010). "Volume change of bread and bread crumb during cooling, chilling and freezing, and the impact of baking." Journal of Cereal Science 51(1): 115-119.

2. Chevallier, S., R. Zúñiga, et al. Assessment of Bread Dough Expansion during Fermentation. Food and Bioprocess Technology, Springer New York: 1-9, doi 10.1007/s11947-008-0142-2

3. Curic, D., D. Novotni, et al. (2008). "Design of a quality index for the objective evaluation of bread quality: Application to wheat breads using selected bake off technology for bread making." Food Research International 41(7): 714-719.

4. Galic, K., D. Curic, et al. (2009). "Shelf Life of Packaged Bakery Goods - A Review." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49(5): 405 - 426.

5. Genkina, N. K. and V. P. Yuryev (2008). Synergistic and Antogonistic Effects in Viscosity of Polysaccharide Blends In " Starch Science and Technology" Eds.: V.P. Yuryev, P. Tomasik, A. Blennow, L. Wasserman , G.E. Zaikov ) 2008, Nova Science Publishers, NY. 147-160.

6. Grenier, D., D. Le Ray, et al. (2010). "Combining local pressure and temperature measurements during bread baking: insights into crust properties and alveolar structure of crumb." Journal of Cereal Science 52(1): 1-8.

7. Lambert, J., A. Le-Bail, et al. (2009). "The attitudes od european consumers toward innovation in bread; interest of the consumers toward selected quality attributes." Journal of Sensory Studies 24(2): 204-219.

8. Le-Bail A. (2009) « Frozen Bake off – From strength to strength “, EUROPEAN BAKER, May-June 2009, n° 104: 22-24

9. Le-Bail A. (2010), « Frozen Bake off – Good and easy “, EUROPEAN BAKER, Jan-Feb 2010, n° 108: 14-17

10. Le-Bail, A., K. Boumali, et al. (2009). "Impact of the baking kinetics on staling rate and mechanical properties of bread crumb and degassed bread crumb." Journal of Cereal Science 50(2): 235-240.

11. Le-Bail, A., T. Dessev, , et al (2010). Bread freezing and storage. Impact of process condition on energy demand. In I.I.R (Ed.), 1st IIIR Conference on sustainability and the cold chain. International Institute of refrigeration, Cambridge, UK, p. Paper 239 (6 pages). ISBN 978-2-913149-75-5

12. Le-bail, A., T. Dessev, et al. (2010). "Energy demand for selected bread making processes: Conventional versus part baked frozen technologies." Journal of Food Engineering 96(4): 510-519.

13. Le-Bail, A., C. Nicolitch, et al. (2010). "Fermented Frozen Dough: Impact of Pre-fermentation Time and of Freezing Rate for a Pre-fermented Frozen Dough on Final Volume of the Bread." Food and Bioprocess Technology 3(2): 197-203.

14. Le-Bail, A., Zuniga et al. (2008). Energy, nutrition and quality of breads; an overview of what is going on within the European project “EU-Freshbake”. New Food Magazine 4: 60-64.

15. Lucas, T., D. Grenier, et al. (2010). "Bubble growth and collapse in pre-fermented doughs during freezing, thawing and final proving." Food Research International 43(4): 1041-1048.

16. Mezaize, S., S. Chevallier, et al. (2009). "Optimization of Gluten-Free Formulations for French-Style Breads." Journal of Food Science 74(3): E140-E146.

17. Misharina, T.A., V.I. Kiseleva, et al. (2009) " Release of volatile compounds from the bread” In: “Kinetics and Thermodynamics for Chemistry and Biochemistry” Eds. by M. Pearce, G.E. Zaikov, G. Kirshenbaum. Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, pp. 169-180

18. Novotni, D., D. Curic, et al. "Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.

19. Poinot, P., G. Arvisenet, et al. (2008). "Influence of formulation and process on the aromatic profile and physical characteristics of bread." Journal of Cereal Science 48(3): 686-697.

20. Poinot, P., G. Arvisenet, et al. (2010). "Influence of inulin on bread: Kinetics and physico-chemical indicators of the formation of volatile compounds during baking." Food Chemistry 119(4): 1474-1484.

21. Poinot, P., G. Arvisenet, et al. (2009). "Use of an artificial mouth to study bread aroma." Food Research International 42(5-6): 717-726.

22. Poinot, P., J. Grua-Priol, et al. (2007). "Optimisation of HS-SPME to study representativeness of partially baked bread odorant extracts." Food Research International 40(9): 1170-1184.

23. Rosell, C.M. (2009) “Trends in breadmaking: Low and subzero temperatures”. In: Innovation in Food Engineering: New Techniques and Products. Eds M.L. Passos, C.L. Ribeiro. 2009. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. 59-79

24. Rosell, C. M. and C. Collar (2009). "Effect of temperature and consistency on wheat dough performance." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 44(3): 493-502.

25. Rosell, C. M. and E. Santos (2010). "Impact of fibers on physical characteristics of fresh and staled bake off bread." Journal of Food Engineering 98(2): 273-281.

26. Rosell, C. M., E. Santos, et al. (2009). "Wholemeal wheat bread: A comparison of different breadmaking processes and fungal phytase addition." Journal of Cereal Science 50(2): 272-277.

27. Sikora, M., S. Kowalski, et al. (2010). "Starch gelatinization as measured by rheological properties of the dough." Journal of Food Engineering 96(4): 505-509.

28. Vanin, F. M., T. Lucas, et al. (2009). "Crust formation and its role during bread baking." Trends in Food Science & Technology 20(8): 333-343.

29. Wasserman, L. A., V. G. Vasil'ev, et al. (2009). "Influence of Gluten and Gum Additives and Cryogenic Treatment on Some Properties and Morphology of Wheat Starch Complex Gels." Starch - Stärke 61(7): 377-388.

30. Zúñiga, R. and A. Le-Bail (2009). "Assessment of thermal conductivity as a function of porosity in bread dough during proving." Food and Bioproducts Processing 87(1): 17-22.

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